Good Practices


Information security is the ever evolving process of using the best tools at your disposal to protect your data. Online privacy is about retaining control over who should be able to access your data as well as if, when, how, and for what purpose your data should be collected, stored, used, or shared.

What follows is a list of measures and suggestions you can consider adopting in order to better address these important aspects of your life in this information age.


1. Software updates

2. Device authentication

3. Device encryption

4. Find my device

5. Password management

6. Multi-Factor Authentication

7. Secure communication

8. Web security

9. Privacy settings and policies

10. Online tracking and advertising

11. Cloud services

12. Data breaches

13. Data protection and minimization

14. Social engineering

15. Anti-malware software

16. VPN

17. Webcam security

18. Data backups

19. Personal security assessment

20. Bring other people in

21. Conclusion

Software updates

Software is complex, flawed, and ever evolving.

One of the most important things you can do to protect your information is to keep your software (like your apps and your various operating systems) always up-to-date, making sure at the same time they are recent enough to still be supported by their developer (it being an indie developer, or a big company like Facebook, Apple, Microsoft, Google, Ubiquiti, and Samsung). By doing so you’ll not only make sure that you have access to the latest features and fixes, but that you’ll also be running the most secure version of any given software product, at any given time.

Keep in mind that it’s not only your phone, tablet, laptop, and desktop computers that rely on software updates and firmware updates to function securely, improve over time, and introduce new features. Routers (which are at the heart of any local area network like your home network) and IoT devices such as smart speakers, lights, fridges, doorbells, TVs, TV remotes, etc. also rely on regular updates for the very same reasons.

In the words of EFF‘s Gennie Gebhart (which I edited for clarity):

“All code is sketchy, some code is just less sketchy than other. Running on your devices there’s a lot of code and it has problems in it. It is written by humans and humans make mistakes at some point. You have (ideally) teams of engineers constantly working behind these OSes and apps to find the mistakes and fix them. All they need you to do is click “Update” and maybe restart. If you don’t do that, that means that there is a way out there to exploit your device or your software that the world kind of knows about. Until you click “Update” you are easier and cheaper to hack.”

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Device authentication

You can help avoid other people gaining access to your personal data (as well as the personal data the people in your life might be sharing with you) by setting up a strong and unique password (sometimes referred to as a passcode or a PIN) on each of your devices.

Think about the personal information you’re storing on them (things like notes, contacts, private conversations, photos and videos, web browsing history, etc.), as well as the personal information accessible through them (things like files uploaded to the cloud, emails, financial information, and other information stored in your online accounts). You probably wouldn’t want all of this to be left unprotected every time you leave one of your devices unattended, or in the event you lose one of them altogether. The people sharing personal information with you probably wouldn’t want this either.

Once you’ve set up a password, it might be possible (based on the device you’re using) to enable some form of biometric authentication. In this case you’ll also be able to unlock your devices by way of scanning parts of your body such as your fingerprints, your face, or your iris.

This can help you make the action of unlocking your devices quicker and easier, while at the same time empower you to use passwords that are stronger and to reduce the time window between when you lock your devices and when a password or biometric factor is required to unlock them (since the friction of having to frequently type your way into your devices will no longer be there). It can also help you keep your passwords private when using your devices in font of other people (such as in public venues) or in places employing video surveillance.

Note that not all forms and implementations of biometric authentication are created equal (e.g. some can be fooled by a simple printout or video of your face). This means that you should probably do a bit of research beforehand to make sure you’re comfortable with the level of security a given biometric system is able to provide. If you’re not comfortable with what you find (or if for any reason biometric authentication is not an option for you) just stick to a strong and unique password.

A good way to go about creating strong, unique, and memorable passwords is through the Diceware method and similar methods. This will result in passphrases that are strong and unique, but also easier to remember than random strings of characters.

Many password managers (more on this in the Password management chapter) include a password generator able to generate those for you. This is the quick way. Alternatively you can get some dice (ideally five, but one will also do), a word list like this one from the Electronic Frontier Foundation or these ones from Arnold Reinhold, and then pick one of the following guides on how to proceed:

A note: You should not (in most cases) share your passwords with other people. If you have the suspicion (or you know) that one of your passwords is compromised, change it as soon as possible.

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Device encryption

You can turn on device encryption on both your devices’ internal storage and on any other external drives you may be using (such as SD cards, Hard Disk Drives, Solid State Drives, and USB flash drives) to make it harder for anyone to extract data from them.

Data stored on iPhone and iPad devices can be easily encrypted by setting up a passcode (optionally coupled with Touch ID or Face ID).

Some Android devices (such as the ones in Google’s Pixel line) are encrypted by default. Devices shipping with Android 10 or later are required to support File-Based Encryption and people running Android 4.4 or later on their devices should be able to manually enable some form of device encryption by visiting the Security (or Security & Location) section of their Settings app.

Windows devices can be encrypted using the built-in BitLocker feature (available to consumers as part of Windows 10 Pro, but not available to Windows 10 Home users).

macOS devices can be encrypted using FileVault, a feature that is part of the OS and available via System Preferences.

If your computer is running a version of Windows that doesn’t include BitLocker or if you’re looking for a solution that is both open-source and available across Windows, macOS, and Linux than look no further than VeraCrypt, from the bright minds at IDRIX.

What VeraCrypt allows you to do is:

  • Encrypt a non-system partition or drive / Create a volume within a partition or drive
    This allows you to encrypt things like SD cards, USB flash drives, Hard Disk Drives, as well as individual partitions of those drives (as long as they’re not system partition, AKA where your operating system is installed).

Keep in mind that encrypted devices might need to be powered down for the data they contain to be fully encrypted.

Here are a few resources to go along what we covered here:

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Find my device

You can enable features such as Find My Device (available on Windows and Android devices) and Find My (available on iOS, iPadOS, and macOS devices) to have remote access to some of the following actions and information:

  • Locate your device on a map.
  • Have your device play a sound.
  • Lock your device and have it display a custom message.
  • Erase all the data stored on your device.

In addition to this, Apple’s Activation Lock and Google’s phone protection features go a step forward and help prevent unauthorized parties from using your lost or stolen devices even after being remotely erased.

Note that by enabling all of this you will be regularly sending your location information to a company such as Apple, Microsoft, or Google (depending on the device in question). You should therefore balance the benefits of remotely locating, securing, and erasing your devices with your willingness to disclose such personal information to a third-party.

Keep in mind that this is not the only way your devices may be broadcasting your location info to third-parties. More on this in the Privacy settings and policies chapter.

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Password management

You can use a password manager (which is a digital encrypted vault) to drastically improve the security of your accounts and make the whole process of managing such sensitive information easier.

Well-regarded options when it comes to choosing one are:

Start using a password manager means you can start randomly generating long, complex, unique passwords and not have to worry about remembering them.

Picture a string of 30+ characters (or as many characters as you want, really) made up of randomly generated letters, numbers, and symbols: That’s a password!

123456, dictionary words, movie titles, dates, etc. are not passwords…

You can approximate the strength of your passwords at You can also jump to the Data breaches chapter for more info about how to check if your information and your passwords have previously been exposed in a known data breach and what to do about it.

Password managers usually come with the ability to auto-fill things like usernames, passwords, and other info either directly via the app on mobile devices or using a dedicated browser extension on laptop and desktop computers. Look for these extensions on your password manager website, or in your web browser’s extension store.

Creating and maintaining an encrypted and possibly well organized list of all your accounts’ information (and any other kind of sensitive information you might want to store there) is a big plus for both security and convenience.

Even when using a password manager you’ll probably need to create a few strong and memorable passwords for things like your master password (your password manager password) and maybe a few of your main accounts. A good way to go about facing this issue is (as mentioned in the Device authentication chapter) using passphrases created with the help of the Diceware method or similar methods. Hop there for more information about this.

Even though a password manager is the best solution for most people, there will be cases in which (for whatever reason) a software solution is just not viable. If this is you, keep in mind that managing your credentials with a physical password book that you keep someplace safe might still be better than not managing them at all.

Once you’ve set up strong and unique passwords (or passphrases) for your accounts, you’re pretty much done with them. Companies and services that follow modern security practices should only require a password change upon indication or suspicion of compromise.

A note: You should not (in most cases) share your passwords and passphrases with other people.

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Multi-Factor Authentication

You can enable Multi-Factor Authentication (Two-Factor Authentication, 2-Step Verification, etc. are all forms of MFA) to significantly enhance the security posture of your accounts by way of adding extra steps to sign-in processes that would otherwise require you to only provide a single factor (like a password) to be logged in.

You’ve probably already used some form of MFA before. If you own a credit card and go to an ATM to withdraw cash you’re asked to put in your card and provide a PIN: That’s MFA!

These additional factors can be something you know (like a password or a PIN), something you have (like a credit card, a phone, or a security key), or something you are (via a fingerprint, face, or iris scan). When paired together they make it much more difficult for bad people to try and steal your information.

In the case of the online companies and services that support MFA, second factors are usually implemented as one-time verification codes delivered to your phone (something you have) via SMS, cellular phone call, or email, or generated by an authenticator app installed on your phone (again, something you have). In some cases MFA can also come in the form of a push notifications delivered to your phone with a simple Yes/No question, or the ability to set up a security key, a small physical device able to provide a higher level of protection against common online attacks such as phishing.

Keep in mind that even though MFA is an overall improvement to your accounts’ security and any kind of MFA is better than no MFA at all, not all MFA methods are created equal:

Also keep in mind that the “flavors” of MFA available (as well as how they’re referred to) can vary quite a bit from one service to the other. This means that sometimes your preferred MFA method might not be available and that some other times you might need to check extra carefully to find the MFA option a company has decided to call in some not-very-straight-forward way. Here’s some help: Turn It On (TeleSign)

When enabling MFA, you’ll likely be prompted to save one or more recovery codes or backup codes. These will allow you to get back into your account in case you lose access to your MFA device. Make sure you keep them safe in your password manager, or somewhere else that is safe.

Popular authenticator apps are LastPass Authenticator, 1PasswordMicrosoft Authenticator, Google Authenticator, FreeOTP, and Authy. Popular security keys are Yubico’s YubiKeys, and Google’s Titan Security Keys.

Here are a few resources that can help you choose the MFA method that’s best for you:

No matter how layered your security approach is, your accounts’ security are only as strong as your “I forgot my password” settings are. That is to say that you might want to check those out as well, as part of your MFA All The Things journey.

PS: Apps like Signal, WhatsApp, and Telegram offer MFA features as well. Consider enabling them!

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Secure communication

You can prioritize the use of end-to-end encrypted communication tools like Signal (Beginner’s guide), Wire (Beginner’s guide), WhatsApp (Beginner’s guide), and ProtonMail over unencrypted options such as cellular phone calls and SMS or non end-to-end encrypted options such as Facebook Messenger, Instagram Direct, Snapchat, Telegram, Twitter’s Direct Messages, Skype, WeChat, Gmail, and to make sure (to a reasonable degree) that only you and the people you choose to communicate with have access to the information you share. No third-parties like Facebook, Google, Microsoft, Twitter, other companies, rogue employees, governments, or malicious actors will be able to access, exploit, or misuse the content of your conversations.

End-to-end encrypted communication services usually rely on a technology called public-key cryptography, where a public and a private key are assigned to every user.

When someone sends a message to someone else (or a voice message, or an attachment, or a voice/video call, and so on) that data is encrypted locally on the sender’s device using the recipient’s public key and is then sent over the Internet to the recipient, where it’s decrypted locally on their device using their private key (which, as the name suggests, is never shared). Voilà!

Public key fingerprints (which are relatively short sequences of characters that uniquely identify a public key) can be used to make sure your conversations are end-to-end encrypted and to verify that the people on the other end of your chats are really who they say they are. Various services refer to these in different ways: Signal calls them Safety Numbers, Wire Key Fingerprints, WhatsApp Security Codes, while ProtonMail refers to the process of comparing them as Address Verification.

In the case of WhatsApp you should consider enabling security notifications to make sure you’re notified if a contact’s Security Code changes, disabling unencrypted cloud backups (which as a feature defeats the entire purpose of providing end-to-end encryption in the first place), and understanding if you’re comfortable with the amount of information WhatsApp (which is owned by Facebook) is able to collect about you and your activity. This kind of information is sometimes referred to as metadata and can include all sorts of personal and/or sensitive data such as who you are, where you are, who you communicate with and when, what’s in your contact list, how and when you use the app, etc.

Signal, by contrast, has a much stricter privacy policy, various privacy-focused features (such as encrypted profiles, private contact discovery, and sealed sender) and an overall stronger commitment to transparency and accountability.

ProtonMail provides both end-to-end encryption and zero-access encryption. While someone’s ProtonMail inbox is always protected with zero-access encryption (meaning no one except the user has access to it), the availability of end-to-end encryption depends on the email services used by all the people involved in a conversation. The easiest way to make sure your email correspondence is end-to-end encrypted is making sure all parties involved are using ProtonMail.

Here are some additional resources and articles you might want to take a look at:

Note: A few of the services categorized as non end-to-end encrypted in this chapter provide end-to-end encryption as an optional feature. This means that private conversations are not treated as the foundation, but rather as an afterthought.

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Web security

Important pillars of web security are HTTPS (the secure version of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP), DNS over HTTPS (a protocol that enables access to Domain Name System services over a secure HTTPS connection), and a good web browser (one that is both easy to use and able to protect your security and privacy as you do so).

When connecting to a secure website (a website that uses HTTPS) you get three very important things: First you get proof of identity; this means that you can trust that a given website is really who it says it is, not some other website you’ve been redirected to without your knowledge or consent. Second you get confidentiality; this means that you can trust that the exchange of information between you and a given website is protected from eavesdropping. Third you get integrity; this means that you can trust that the data flowing to and from a given website is not modified in any way.

This highlights how much HTTP websites (or non-secure websites) are vulnerable and how they simply cannot be trusted. In fact unsecured webpages can and are used by malicious actors, governments, and ISPs around the world to:

  • Gain access to the data flowing between users and the webpages they’re visiting
    Think again before typing login credentials, credit card information, or any other kind of personal information into a page that is not secure. Keep also in mind that any unsecured webpage you visit can represent valuable information for ISPs able to use or sell personal information for advertising purposes, or for governments engaged in mass surveillance.
  • Do targeted censorship
    In the case of secure webpages everything after the “/” (forward slash) is encrypted. This means that if you visit any Wikipedia page all a potentially malicious actor can see is: This also means that a repressive government (or an unregulated ISP) has to choose between blocking Wikipedia entirely, or not blocking Wikipedia at all.

HTTPS is at the very heart of a lot of the things that we rely on as we go about our daily lives. It is a website administrator’s duty to upgrade their website to HTTPS and it is a user’s right to request administrators do so if they haven’t already.

You can make sure you’re not visiting an unsecured website by keeping an eye out for the address bar: If you see a “Not secure” warning or you DON’T see a padlock icon, then the website you’re visiting is served (at least in part) over a connection that is not secure. If this is the case you should avoid entering any private information on that website and, if possible, try not to use it in the future as well.

Some websites may be available both via unsecured HTTP and secure HTTPS. Browser extensions such as EFF’s HTTPS Everywhere (which requires sites to use HTTPS whenever possible) can help here.

Keep in mind that in some circumstances the act of visiting a webpage could be in itself considered very personal information and that just because you deleted your info from a search box, an online form, or any other type of input field before submitting it doesn’t necessarily mean the website in question has not logged what you entered anyway.

Please note: The fact that a page is secure doesn’t necessarily mean it is also safe. As HTTPS adoption is growing worldwide, the number of malicious websites using it is also growing.

Here are a few additional resources you might want to check out:

Anything that’s connected to the Internet (websites included) is identified by a string of characters known as an IP address. This means that when you type your favourite website’s address (lets say that’s Wikipedia) into your address bar there needs to be a service your browser can contact to have “” translated into an IP address it can actually locate and connect to. Entering the Internet’s directory: the Domain Name System, or DNS for short.

DNS is what enables you to deal with website addresses that make sense, rather than the random strings of characters that make up an IP address.

DNS services are usually provided by your ISP by default, but there are a number of alternative DNS providers you can switch your devices to if the default option is not what you’re looking for.

Just like it was the case with connections to most websites not being secure until relatively recent times, DNS services are (to this day) for the most part still provided over anachronistic unsecured connections. This means that even though websites such as are made available over HTTPS, the DNS requests your devices make in order to connect to those websites are frequently unencrypted and are prone to eavesdropping, tampering, and blocking by other people in your network, your ISP, or other malicious parties able to intercept them.

The DNS over HTTPS (DoH) protocol fixes this by allowing companies and organization that operate DNS servers to deliver DNS requests over a secure HTTPS connection.

There are a number of companies that are starting to make this option available across their DNS offering, most notably Cloudflare with their service. People interested in switching the default DNS settings on their mobile devices to Cloudflare and take advantage of DoH can download the app available on both the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store. Switching to on your desktop or laptop computer while retaining the benefits of DoH means enabling DNS over HTTPS in your web browser (if you’re using Firefox), or venture into installing the open source Cloudflare client for Windows, macOS, and Linux by following the documentation available here.

If you’re looking for more protection than what HTTPS and DoH alone can provide, you might want to check out the VPN chapter.

Another important part of web security relates to the web browser you use. In this regard consider trying out the Firefox browser if you haven’t recently done so. It comes with a pretty strong set of security and privacy-oriented features and capabilities such as a powerful built-in Content Blocking feature, Firefox Monitor Notifications, which alert users when they visit a website that has had a recently reported data breach, the ability to install robust tracking protection extensions such as Facebook Container and Firefox Multi-Account Containers, as well as the ability (as mentioned above) to enable DNS over HTTPS right inside the browser by just checking a box.

Firefox is also not controlled by a data-hungry company like Google but rather by a not-for-profit organization focused on doing right by their users and make the Internet a better place for everybody.

Here’s some help, if you need it: Switching from Chrome to Firefox (Mozilla)

If you need a Chromium-based web browser (Chromium is the open source project on which Google Chrome is based) then consider trying out the Brave Browser. Just like Google Chrome it has access to the extensions available via the Chrome Web Store, but unlike Google Chrome comes with an interesting set of privacy-preserving features as well as a stronger overall commitment to user privacy and security.

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Privacy settings and policies

The apps and services you use come with (among other things) privacy policies and a set number of default privacy settings. Those can include policies and settings that let companies like Facebook and Google use your personal data to target you with ads; as well as permissions that grant the apps you use access to things like your camera, microphone, geographic location, contacts, calendar, photos, and other data.

Since in many cases security and privacy do not come as the default, consider carefully checking out privacy policy documents and privacy settings while at the same time asking yourself: What data about myself should the apps and services I use be able to access, collect, store, and use?

Making sure you’re comfortable using an app or service could mean:

  • Reading privacy policy and terms of service pages
    When you sign up for a service, or open an app for the first time you are also agreeing to policies and terms that will govern your relationship with that app or service as well as what you and the company behind it can and cannot do. Consider reading them.
  • Checking your app permissions
    How many of your apps really need access to your location, microphone, camera, or contact list in order to work?
  • Checking your apps’ and services’ privacy settings
    Maybe you want to protect your WhatsApp app with a PIN? Maybe you’re not OK with iOS automatically backing up your unencrypted messages to the cloud? Have you ever done a Privacy Checkup, or visited the Privacy, Apps and Websites, and Your ad preferences pages on Facebook? Have you ever browsed the Google Privacy Checkup and My Activity pages of your Google account? Have you ever visited the Privacy and safety and Your Twitter data pages of your Twitter account? Did you know that Google and Amazon store every conversation you’ve ever had with your Google Home or Amazon Alexa smart speaker (including the ones it may have picked up on accidentally) on their servers and that you can listen to them and delete them if you want?
  • Checking your browser extensions permissions
    Browser extensions can do a lot of things, beside being useful: They can have the ability to access your browsing history, or to replace content on the pages you visit, or to access the data you input into any web page (including sensitive data like financial data, usernames and passwords, and private messages). If you’re not okay with some of the permissions a given browser extension require, consider removing it and maybe find a replacement. If an extension doesn’t come from a trusted publisher, it could cause a lot of damage.
  • Quitting some apps and services by deleting the account and/or uninstalling the app
    If you make this decision but want to keep you data remember that most services allow you to download a copy of your data.

When it comes to the disclosure of your location information keep in mind that there are different ways in which such data can be accessed and collected by third-parties.

  • Apps are able to access and track your location using data from global navigation satellite systems such as GPS and Galileo. In most cases you’ll be able to control this by visiting your device’s privacy settings.
  • Apps are also able to track your whereabouts using Bluetooth and Wi-Fi connectivity. Few OSes currently provide controls around this.
  • Your IP address can be used by the websites, apps, and services you connect to to determine the country you’re accessing the Internet from. More on how you can control this in the VPN chapter.
  • Mobile network operators are able to detect your location because they know to which of their cell sites you’re connected to, making location disclosure a matter of course that can only be avoided if you’re willing to disable all cellular connectivity via settings such as Airplane Mode.

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Online tracking and advertising

Big tracking networks like the ones put in place by Google, Facebook, Amazon, Twitter and others are always trying to follow you around the web with the goal of collecting as much data about you and your behavior as possible, data they are then able to use to do things like targeted advertising.

Ads can be invasive, sometimes exploited for malicious purposes (like prompting you to install malware, or giving up personal information) and can negatively impact your browsing experience, your bandwidth usage, and your battery life.

Sites can even be hijacked to mine cryptocurrency without your consent. Which can be a very lucrative business for malicious actors.

To minimize this kind of behavior, you can try out browser extensions such as uBlock Origin, Privacy Badger, Ghostery, and DuckDuckGo Privacy Essentials or check out the Content Blocking settings if you’re using the Firefox browser.

Keep in mind that the vast majority of websites are ad-supported, so you might want to consider white listing the ones you want to support and/or the ones you trust to help them continue doing what they’re doing.

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Cloud services

Cloud services can be amazing tools, but they can also bring some important security and privacy trade-offs with them.

Companies operating mainstream services such as Google Drive, OneDrive, Dropbox, OneNote, Evernote, WeTransfer and so on cannot guarantee that their users will be the only ones able to access their own data. This is because (for various reasons) they’ve decided to maintain access to users’ data as well.

This can be fine in some scenarios, but there will probably be times when (maybe even at the cost of losing out in terms of functionality) you might actually want to have control over who has access to your data, and how your data is handled.

This is where end-to-end encrypted services like Sync for cloud storage, Standard Notes for note-taking, and Firefox Send or FileSend for file sharing could come in handy. They all encrypt and decrypt your data locally, so as to provide a service in which you can be sure (to a reasonable degree) that only you and the people you might want to share your data with will be able to access such data.

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Data breaches

Data breaches have become very frequent in recent years, and every breach adds to an ever growing pool of personal data about us that is publicly available (compromised).

Think about the Equifax disaster that exposed personal data such as Social Security Numbers and dates of birth of over 140 million US citizens, or the Yahoo! data breach that exposed personal info of all of Yahoo’s 3 billion registered accounts.

All of this compromised data will never go back under the control of the people who lost it, and in casems such as SSNs and dates of birth there’s not much one can do. Those are things that just cannot be changed.

In a world that’s increasingly reliant on digital means to collect, store, use, and share all sorts of data (including personal data and sensitive personal data), in which personal information is frequently compromised in data breaches and/or voluntarily disclosed on social media (and yet still widely used to identify and authenticate people) malicious parties can do real damage.

A very useful tool both when it comes to security awareness and knowledge about data breaches is the Firefox Monitor service.

The easy to use website (which is based on Troy Hunt‘s Have I Been Pwned? project) lets you check if your data was ever part of a known data breach via a publicly searchable database, as well as add the email addresses you want to keep monitored (a free Firefox account is required in this case) to be notified when new information about data breaches impacting your accounts surfaces.

One interesting Have I Been Pwned? feature (that Firefox Monitor currently lacks) is Pwned Passwords, a page where anyone can type their passwords and instantly know if they previously appeared in a data breach. This is done without your passwords ever been disclosed to anyone by taking advantage of a mathematical property called k-anonymity.

A number of other companies have been incorporating Have I Been Pwned? tools into their products and services as well. Two I would like to mention here are the 1Password password manager and the PassProtect browser extension.

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Data protection and minimization

Try to be aware and mindful about which data you digitize and where and how you store it, but also about which data you share about yourself (including personal info such as your name and surname, date of birth, home address, etc.) and with whom, where, and how you share it.

Keep in mind that you’re not probably dealing exclusively with your personal data, but with the personal data other people have shared and are sharing with you as well.

Personal info such as name and surname and date of birth, which are still used in many cases as only info required to authenticate people (looking at you telecommunication companies…), could be used to impersonate you and gain unauthorized access to all sorts of services you use. Moreover once such data becomes public there might not be a way for you to do much of anything about it. You may be able to change your passwords, but changing things such as your date of birth, your name and surname, or your home address is much more difficult.

When signing up to a service try to get a sense of how the company behind it will store your data and if they’ll do so in a matter that protects your security and respects your privacy. Try to also think about what data any given service needs versus the data it asks for, and try to find a way to only give up what’s strictly necessary.

Does that random online forum really needs your real name, date of birth and your main email address? Should you really trust that random shopping site with your credit card info, or should you maybe consider using a different payment method (like PayPal, if available) instead?

Always try to understand how much personal data you are willing to share with third-parties. If you’re not comfortable with the amount of information a given service is asking you to provide, consider not using it.

Consider deleting data you don’t need or use. This could mean deleting old social media posts that don’t reflect you anymore, pictures and videos in shared folders you don’t need, accounts you never use or only rarely use (the Just Delete Me website or the accompanying browser extension can help you here), as well as old files that are just taking up valuable space. It could also mean completely wiping your old devices; things like old phones, laptops, tablets, or Hard Disk Drives.

Keep in mind that aside from employing a trusted disk wiping tool, the best option to wipe devices like old Hard Disk Drives is usually that of physically destroying them.

As the UK’s National Cyber Security Centre wrote soon after news hit of a previously undisclosed Google+ bug that could’ve potentially be exploited to access people’s private information:

“For any user of social media, this breach is a reminder that social media applications that you no longer use may still contain your data and this could potentially be leaked. It is recommended that any active or inactive users of social media platforms review their data held by such platforms to limit any future exposure to breaches. They should also review their privacy settings with companies, including Google, which have introduced further privacy checks with the introduction of the GDPR act.”

Two products that can help you minimize the data about yourself you wittingly or unwittingly share with third parties are DuckDuckGo‘s search engine (a search engine that doesn’t track users) and the Tor Browser (a tool that lets you browse the web anonymously). And just in case you were wondering: Private Browsing is NOT an anonymity tool.

Taking good care of your data also means deciding what will happen to your accounts and the data they hold after your death. Would you prefer your data be deleted? Would you prefer to designate a person (or a group of people) that will be in charge of handling your data for you? A digital death plan is probably not something people generally like to think about, but it’s also the only way you’ll be able to retain some control over your data once you’re not around anymore.

Not many services currently offer features and policies around this yet, but some do. Maybe check them out sometime?

Here’s some help navigating the topic, if you need it: Death Online: Planning your digital afterlife (The Verge)

If you need to protect yourself from online harassment, then you might want to check out the Speak Up & Stay Safe(r) guide from Jaclyn Friedman, Anita Sarkeesian, and Renee Bracey Sherman.

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Social engineering

Even though popular email services like Gmail and and secure email services like ProtonMail already do a pretty decent job at filtering out most junk mail from your inbox and popular web browsers such as the Firefox browser, Google Chrome, Brave, and Microsoft Edge have the capability of warning you when you’re about to visit potentially malicious webpages, keep in mind that such safeguards will not protect you against everything, and (even more crucially) will not always protect you against yourself.

Contemporary hacking usually involves the user’s unwitting participation. This is because it is way easier (and cheaper) for someone to send a malicious link or attachment and have the victim do the work for them, instead of having to make their way through technical safeguards themselves (which could be possible too, just generally more expensive).

Think twice before opening suspicious email attachments or clicking phishy links. They could end up tricking you into unknowingly giving away personal information (phishing), into installing malicious software such as ransomware, or some other nasty thing.

Here are a few things you can look out for to protect yourself against these types of attack:

  • Things that are too good to be true
    Such communications may involve free giveaways, large sums of money, or something along those lines…
  • Messages that convey a sense of urgency and ask you to act promptly
    Such messages may involve communications about your accounts being compromised, and may ask you to put your info into a page that looks just like the original one but in fact is not.
  • Shortened links
    Shortened links (like’s) can be used to hide links to malicious webpages.
  • Email addresses that don’t look quite right
    This may involve very long, apparently random email addresses as well as addresses similar to ones you trust but different in some little, less apparent way.
  • Messages from and about services you don’t use
    Such as an email about a bank account from a bank you don’t bank with, or from a service you never signed up for, or about a package you never ordered.

You can test your phish spotting skills using Jigsaw’s cleverly designed Can you spot when you’re being phished? quiz. You can also use tools such as CheckShortURL to check where shortened URLs lead to before actually opening them in your browser.

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Anti-malware software

When using anti-malware software (like anti-virus software) take into account the fact that for it to work it has to have deep access to a system. Vulnerabilities in such software would therefore greatly increase the surface for potential attacks.

This is not to say that you should downright avoid it, instead that you should be aware of the fact that poorly developed anti-malware software (particularly if provided by a third party, which usually needs to hack its way into a system in order to work) could add serious vulnerabilities to a system, instead of helping securing it.

Microsoft’s Windows 10 comes with the Windows Security app as part of the operating system. Consider sticking with it.

Here are some more information on the topic:

Whatever you choose to do, try also to be careful and mindful about what you’re doing with your devices and in which context you’re doing it. Anti-malware software can indeed help you, but it can’t do much to protect you if you ignore common sense security practices.

Also, in case you were wondering: Yes, everybody has software vulnerabilities and (yes) there is malware for everybody. No system is immune and there is no such thing as a hack-proof system. That is where regular an timely updates come into play.

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A Virtual Private Network is a tool used by different people in different parts of the world to achieve different goals. Someone could be using a trusted VPN (the keyword here being “trusted”) to prevent their Internet activity from being monitored or tampered with (whether because that’s mandated by law, for profit, or for malicious purposes) or to access content blocked in their country by a content provider or the government, while someone else could be using one to get around pervasive surveillance and censorship and participate in the open Internet.

Using a VPN means all your Internet traffic is sent to one of your VPN’s servers (VPNs usually have hundreds or even thousands of servers spread across the world) via an encrypted tunnel, and it then goes out to the Internet from there. This has two main positive implications:

  • Traffic encryption
    Anyone positioned between you and the VPN’s servers will only be able to see that you’re connected to a VPN, preventing them from having any kind of access to your Internet traffic. This can protect you from unregulated ISPs, mandatory data retention laws, bad actors in general, as well as give you peace of mind when connecting to Wi-Fi networks you don’t trust (like that public Wi-Fi hotspot you find really convenient connecting to from time to time, or the Wi-Fi network from that friend of yours that doesn’t have a very good security hygiene).
  • IP address obfuscation
    Anything you connect to on the Internet will only see the IP address of your VPN’s server, effectively masking your devices’ IP address. This means that your traffic will look to the services you’re using as if it were coming from the VPN’s servers instead of your actual physical location. This can help you avoid letting services know who you are and where you’re visiting them from, but also access content that wouldn’t normally be available in your country or region by connecting to VPN servers based somewhere around the world where that content is available.

Keep in mind: A VPN only protects the connection between you and the services you’re using, it doesn’t prevent you from visiting malicious websites or from voluntarily or involuntarily disclosing personal information to the services you use. Because your data is encrypted locally on your devices and is then decrypted only once it reaches your VPN’s servers, using a VPN also means shifting trust from your ISP to the VPN provider. You’ll want to find a VPN that you can really trust.

Not all VPN services are created equal. Things you might want to check when looking for the VPN that’s right for you are their privacy policy, the country in which they are incorporated and the country from which they operate (which will help you determine how much you can trust them based on the kind of laws and policies that they have to comply with), who is operating the service, and the technology and security protocols they use to protect your information.

Free VPNs are usually not recommended as many of them profit off of selling the very same data people wanted them to protect.

A VPN provider I feel comfortable mentioning here is ProtonVPN (built by the same folks behind ProtonMail). ProtonVPN uses the well-regarded OpenVPN protocol, has some very interesting security features, and has recently received a pretty strong endorsement by Mozilla. Here’s VPNpro’s review of their product: ProtonVPN Review

If what you’re looking for is an anonymity tool, then you might be better off with the Tor Browser rather than just a VPN.

PS: VPNs Are Absolutely a Solution to a Policy Problem (Mo Bitar)

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Webcam security

Webcams are a piece of hardware that is generally easy and very cheap to hack. Consider putting some tape (or a very cool sticker) over yours.

This will not make you surveillance-proof, and there’s probably plenty of other cameras around you at all times over which you have less or no control over, not to mention microphones (which are much more difficult to cover or disable)… But hey! At least you’re doing something, and while you’re hopefully feeling good about it, you’re also subtly telling other people that you do care about security and privacy (which is important, and cool).

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Data backups

A good step you can take to try and prevent losing your data to ransomware or to an Hard Disk Drive or Solid State Drive failure (which will happen at some point) is backups.

You can back your files up to another drive using tools such as SyncBack to do the backing up and VeraCrypt to do the encrypting (more on this in the Device encryption chapter).

Alternatively or in addition to this (depending on your needs) you can back your files up to an end-to-end encrypted cloud storage service such as Sync or to a non-end-to-end encrypted service if your data is already encrypted, or if no personal data is involved and the disclosure of such data to third-parties wouldn’t be cause of concern for you or other people.

While choosing the option (or combination of options) that best fits your needs take into account the sensitivity of the data in question, as well as (in the case of non-end-to-end encrypted services) the trust you’re willing to place in the company operating the service.

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Personal security assessment

A good way to go about implementing the chapters of this list is defining your threat model:

  • What are you trying to protect?
    What is it you consider personal/sensitive enough that you’re willing to take extra steps in order to avoid it falling into the wrong hands, or going public?
  • From whom are you trying to protect it from?
    Are you worried about police surveillance, corporate surveillance, surveillance from your parents, threats from people with physical access to your devices and systems such as spouses, roommates, and employers, or what you’re interested about is adopting general security measures to avoid losing your information to hackers?
  • If that person or entity were to come after what you’re trying to protect, how would they do it?
    Would they just need to grab your device? Would they need to guess a PIN? Would they need to gain remote access to your devices using malware? Would they need to guess the password you keep reusing? Would they be willing to force you into unlocking your data for them?
  • If they were to succeed, how bad would the consequences be?
    What could be the worst case scenario? How would you handle such a situation, if you were confronted with it?
  • How likely is it that someone will come after what you’re trying to protect?
    How valuable do you think your information is for the person or entity in question?
  • What resources such as time (and maybe money) are you willing to invest to secure what you’re trying to protect?

While going through these questions keep in mind that figuring out who and what you trust, as well as realizing the fact that if there is someone targeting you their capabilities will likely grow over time can be very important.

Here’s a good resource from the Electronic Frontier Foundation that dives a little deeper into the topic: Assessing Your Risks (EFF).

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Bring other people in

What we’ve seen so far are some of the most important incremental actions you can take to better protect your data and the data other people might be sharing with you.

But here’s the thing: Security and privacy are only as strong as their weakest link, and can therefore only be really tackled if you approach them as a team sport.

Once you start thinking about data protection as both a journey you and the people in your life can embark on together and a public good, ask yourself: Do these people (the ones I share personal, private, and/or sensitive information with) protect their data and the data I share with them as well? Would it make sense for me to suggest, ask, or even demand they follow good practices similar to the ones highlighted on this page?

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Personal security and privacy are about us, both as individuals and as a society. They are something we should think and talk about because (whether we realize it or not) they are at the heart of everything we do online and off, and as such they touch our lives (directly or otherwise) every single day.

As Edward Snowden once said:

“One of the most important things I think we all have a duty collectively in society to think about is when we’re directed to think a certain way and accept a certain argument reflexively without actually tackling it.

The common argument we have — if you have nothing to hide, you have nothing to fear — the origins of that are literally Nazi propaganda. This is not to equate the actions of our current government to the Nazis, but that is the literal origin of that quote. It’s from the Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels.

So when we hear modern politicians, modern people repeating that reflexively without confronting its origins, what it really stands for, I think that’s harmful.

And if we actually think about it, it doesn’t make sense. Because privacy isn’t about something to hide. Privacy is about something to protect. That’s who you are. That’s what you believe in. Privacy is the right to a self. Privacy is what gives you the ability to share with the world who you are on your own terms. For them to understand what you’re trying to be and to protect for yourself the parts of you you’re not sure about, that you’re still experimenting with.

If we don’t have privacy, what we’re losing is the ability to make mistakes, we’re losing the ability to be ourselves. Privacy is the fountainhead of all other rights. Freedom of speech doesn’t have a lot of meaning if you can’t have a quiet space, a space within yourself, your mind, your community, your friends, your family, to decide what it is you actually want to say.

Freedom of religion doesn’t mean that much if you can’t figure out what you actually believe without being influenced by the criticisms of outside direction and peer pressure. And it goes on and on.

Privacy is baked into our language, our core concepts of government and self in every way. It’s why we call it ‘private property.’ Without privacy you don’t have anything for yourself.

So when people say that to me I say back, arguing that you don’t care about privacy because you have nothing to hide is like arguing that you don’t care about free speech because you have nothing to say.”

Go ahead. Take care 🌱

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Page last updated 18 October 2019
Precisely Private is also available as an eBook and a PDF.